There were multiple requests to the peacekeepers from China, Ethiopia, India and Nepal for forces to be dispatched, "but each UNMISS contingent turned down the request, indicating their troops were fully committed".
South Sudan's capital Juba endured three days of intense fighting from July 8-11 between President Salva Kiir's troops and forces loyal to ex-rebel chief Riek Machar that left civilians, refugees and humanitarian workers caught in the crossfire.
Mr Ban said in a statement that he was "deeply distressed by these findings", and reiterated his "outrage over the acts of violence committed in Juba in July and the continuing betrayal of the people of South Sudan by too many of its leaders". The Secretary-General will ensure that the necessary steps are taken to enable UNMISS to protect civilians more effectively, including through greater accountability of the mission's civilian and uniformed leadership.
Among the targets were the UN peacekeeping base known as UN House and the adjacent camp where some 27,000 displaced civilians, who are Nuer, had sought safety and the Terrain Camp.
"The Special Investigation found that a lack of leadership on the part of key senior Mission personnel culminated in a chaotic and ineffective response to the violence", the report states.
In three days of fighting, at least 73 people were killed, including more than 20 internally displaced people who had sought United Nations protection.
"This included at least two instances in which the Chinese battalion abandoned some of its defensive positions", the document said.
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When government soldiers forcibly entered the Terrain Camp and began looting and entering accommodations, the report said, the United Nations mission "failed to respond" to immediate calls for help from some of the 70 civilians there. In August, Ban named Cammaert to lead the investigation into the violence.
Ban said he was "deeply distressed by these findings" and "alarmed by the serious shortcomings" of the United Nations mission.
"During the attack, civilians were subjected to and witnessed gross human rights violations, including murder, intimidation, sexual violence and acts amounting to torture perpetrated by armed government soldiers", the report said.
The investigation led by retired Dutch general Patrick Cammaert was unable to verify allegations that peacekeepers did nothing to help women who were raped during the heavy fighting.
Shortly after the damning report was published on Tuesday, Reuters reported U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon had asked for Ondieki's immediate replacement. "The mission also needs to make the most out of its civilian component to improve its early warning capacities and political engagement with the parties on the ground".
Unmiss has 16,000 peacekeepers deployed in South Sudan.
The map below shows Sudan and South Sudan, with the area of land that is disputed between them in dark orange.