America and South Korea led calls for fresh sanctions after Kim tested a newly developed Hwasong-12 ballistic missile on Sunday, which the dictator claimed was capable of carrying a nuclear warhead to the US.
The test is also an immediate challenge to South Korea's new president, Moon Jae-in, a liberal elected last week who expressed a desire to reach out to North Korea.
This is largely consistent with South Korean and Japanese assessments that it flew further and higher than an intermediate-range missile (IRBM) tested in February.
In a White House statement released Sunday, Spicer said: "With the missile impacting so close to Russian soil - in fact, closer to Russia than to Japan - the President can not imagine that Russia is pleased".
Putin's partial defense of North Korea came after White House press secretary Sean Spicer suggested that the missile test may provoke a more forceful response from the Kremlin.
Asked if North Korea's missile programme was developing faster than the South had expected, he said: "Yes".
North Korean state media claimed that Sunday's test verified a homing feature in the missile that allowed it to survive "under the worst re-entry situation" and accurately detonate.
But its arsenal is growing, so too the pace of its tests and its threats to carry out a seventh nuclear test.
It cited Kim as saying the North would never succumb to what it called the "highly ridiculous" United States strategy of "militarily browbeating only weak countries and nations which have no nukes".
While Trump has said he'd be "honored" to talk with leader Kim under favorable conditions, Haley seemed to rule out the possibility. It further called on all countries to implement the six North Korean sanctions resolutions already adopted by the world body "in an expeditious and serious manner".
Keep The Umbrella Handy For Showers
Tonight , there is a 60 percent chance of showers and thunderstorms, mainly between 10 p.m. and 1 a.m., and a low around 65. Thursday night , there is an 80 percent chance of showers and thunderstorms, mainly after 1 a.m., with a low around 50.
The United States has been discussing possible new U.N. sanctions with China since North Korea's previous missile test about two weeks ago. In April Pyongyang put dozens of missiles on show at a giant military parade through the capital, including one that appeared to be the type launched on Sunday.
The missile, launched at a steep angle, reached an altitude of 2000km and travelled about 700km, landing in the sea west of Japan.
In a statement, the 15-member Council demanded that Pyongyang conduct no further such tests.
Han said South Korea's military separately detected the Sunday launch, using its own intelligence assets.
While Russia and North Korea don't have strong trade ties, they are building on their economic relationship.
"North Korea is capable of continuing to develop longer-range missiles", Physicist David Wright, told CBS News, adding that the regime's longest-distance test to date shows they are inching closer to a missile capable of reaching the USA mainland.
"Russia doesn't want North Korea to have nuclear weapons, but the response from officials in Moscow has been minimal because they know Russian Federation isn't one of Pyongyang's targets", he added.
The missile flew 489 miles on a trajectory reaching an altitude of 1,312 miles, KCNA said.
Spokesman Moon Sang-Gyun said it's still unlikely that North Korea has re-entry technology, which would return a warhead safely back into the atmosphere.
Aside from Pyongyang's space launches, Jeffrey Lewis of the Middlebury Institute of International Studies in the U.S. told AFP: "This is the longest-range missile North Korea has ever tested".