The ministry claimed in a Facebook post and tweet on Tuesday that the picture showed an "Isis automobile convoy" fleeing Abu Kamal, Syria, under USA protection on November 9. Russia said the Americans actively interfered with Russian airstrikes, to provide cover for the Isis fighters.
The ministry posted a number of aerial images that it claimed were of ISIS convoys, It said the United States intervened to "use (ISIS) to promote American interests in Middle East".
Conflict Intelligence Team, a group of Russian online investigators who factcheck claims by the Russian military, said that the other four of the five photographs appear to be taken from 2016 footage released by Iraq's ministry of defence, depicting the Iraqi air force bombing Isis targets near Falluja.
Users were quick to notice that one of the images was taken from a video game named "AC-130 Gunship Simulator: Special Ops Squadron".
Russia's Defense Ministry earlier on Tuesday published photographs that it said proved that USA forces refrained from launching airstrikes against forces of the Islamic State terror group as they fled Syria's Al Bukamal.
The ministry also said that the US coalition categorically refused to strike the retreating terrorists in spite of repeated proposals by the Russian military to conduct joint actions. "However, the USA command's refusal to carry out strikes on the convoys of ISIL terrorists retreating from Albu Kamal on November 9 is an objective fact reflected in the transcripts of the talks and therefore, fully known to the US side", Interfax news agency quoted the ministry as saying. After the images were called out by sharp-eyed readers on social media the Ministry of Defense immediately began taking the posts down.
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"I certainly can't verify, but I've seen the report that one of the pictures came from a video game".
It is not the first time that the Russian defence ministry has tried to pass off footage of other events as its own.
The Kremlin denied that Putin had shown the wrong footage to the American director Oliver Stone during one of a series of interviews.
A US Department of Defense spokesman said this incident was just the latest "episode" by the Russians.
"The United States' refusal to carry out strikes against ISIL terrorist convoys retreating from [Al-Bukamal] is a fact recorded in the transcripts of the talks and, therefore, well known to the American side, just as the active counteraction by USA aircraft to the Russian Aerospace Forces, which were ready to destroy ISIL terrorists who were regrouping for new attacks against government troops near [Al-Bukamal]", the ministry added, using an alternative acronym for ISIS.