Pompeo, the outgoing Central Intelligence Agency director, secured support from 57 senators, with 42 voting no - one of the slimmest margins for the job in recent history.
Pompeo was sworn in Thursday shortly after being confirmed by the Senate.
"I'm looking forward to serving the American people and getting to work right away", he added. That spending level, frequently incorrectly referred to by Trump as a contribution to North Atlantic Treaty Organisation itself, is particularly important given the allies need to combat increased Russian aggression, the official said.
Trump, who abruptly fired Tillerson last month, welcomed Pompeo's confirmation, saying in a statement, "Having a patriot of Mike's enormous talent, energy, and intellect leading the Department of State will be an incredible asset for our country at this critical time in history".
Pompeo-who has previously expressed support for regime change in Iran and North Korea-will take over as America's top diplomat at a time when Trump appears closer than ever to ripping up the Iran nuclear accord, a move experts warn will place the US on a path to war.
For Democrats who will be on the ballot in Trump states, a vote against Mr. Pompeo could have exposed them to attacks from the Republicans, including Mr. Trump, eager to label them obstructionists.
"One of the many values of robust diplomacy is that it increases our chances of solving problems peacefully, without ever firing a shot", Pompeo said. "I understand that" Sen.
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Senator Ben Cardin, a senior Democrat on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said that attitude, and Pompeo's backing for Washington's withdrawal from the nuclear agreement if it can not be changed, were among reasons he opposed him. Key swing votes in Pompeo's favor included Kentucky Republican Sen. Pompeo would then race to a plane waiting to take him to Belgium for a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation meeting.
Senators in the Republican-controlled chamber voted 57-42 in favor of Pompeo, who had faced resistance from Democrats anxious about his reputation for hawkishness and past harsh statements about homosexuality and Islam. Originally, Deputy Secretary John Sullivan, who had been filling in as secretary since Tillerson departed, had planned to make the trip. President George W. Bush's two picks also sailed through. He got 56 yes votes.
Since Tillerson was removed from his post, the president's family members who hold positions as senior White House advisers have acted as de-facto state secretaries. "Either way red state Dems are left in a no-win situation", Katie Martin, a spokeswoman for the National Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC), said ahead of the vote. Rep. Chris Coons, D-Del., then changed his vote to "present" to allow the nomination to proceed to the full Senate.
He'll have a prominent role also in negotiating the Trump administration's relationship with European allies and addressing Russian aggression. US officials say Iran has complied with terms of the accord, but Trump considers it too lenient toward the Islamic Republic. That man is Mike Pompeo. The previous foreign Minister Rex Tillerson was dismissed in March of this year.
Haspel's confirmation hearing is scheduled for May 9.
Pompeo on Thursday secured the votes of 57 senators, with 42 voting no and one senator absent.
But Pompeo's nomination faced historic opposition from Democrats, sparking an unusually partisan confirmation fight for a secretary of State nomination. John Feeley, the US ambassador to Panama, said in his resignation letter he was quitting because of Trump, Reuters reported in January.